Traditionally, Pakistan and Turkey have maintained friendly relations and close ties. Pakistan has used its Islamic credentials since independence to evoke anti-India sentiments in Muslim capitals in the Middle East and countries like Iran, Saudi Arabia and Turkey had been supportive of the Pakistani stand on Kashmir.
India-Turkey Relations: Frozen in Time? | Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
With Ankara, however, things have not changed much and a lack of strong bilateral relations has added to the problem. Turkey maintains that there needs to be a procedure that should be equally applicable to all and argues that both India and Pakistan have a fair claim for NSG membership.
From the bilateral viewpoint, the visit was focused on three aspects — improving trade; enhancing two-way flow of investments; and establishing closer counter-terrorism cooperation. The two sides decided to enhance bilateral trade to USD 10 billion by from the current 6. Secondly, the visit was focused on exploring possibilities for closer counter terrorism cooperation.
Media reports suggest that some had chosen to travel to Syria through Turkey. At the same time, Turkey has faced a number of terrorist attacks inside its territory, including the deadly New Year-eve attack in Istanbul. Counter terrorism cooperation, hence, would be more technical in nature. In fact, the issue was first raised by Turkey soon after the July failed coup and has since been regularly highlighted by the Turkish side. For example, in , bilateral trade stood at USD 4. This was a 27 per cent decline from the total bilateral trade of USD 6. There is, however, a discrepancy in the trade figures provided by Indian and Turkish sources, which could be because of different methods of tabulation.
As per Turkish sources, bilateral trade in stood at USD 6. On the other hand, the majority of Indian imports from Turkey comprises of crude minerals and fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous ores, power generating equipment, chemicals and cultured pearls and jewellery. The two G economies are now looking to improve commercial relations and see a significant potential to boost bilateral trade and investments. Bilateral investments have taken off in recent times and, according to Turkish sources, more than Indian companies have operations in Turkey while as many as 14 Turkish companies have been operating in India.
India refrained from making any commitments on the FTA or on other trade deals but the joint statement noted the desire for achieving USD 10 billion trade in the next three years. An area that should interest Indian businesses is the expertise of the Turkish construction sector. Article 24 : Freedom of Religion and Conscience. Article 25 : Freedom of Thought and Opinion.
Article 26 : Freedom of Expression and Dissemination of Thought. Article 27 : Freedom of Science and the Arts. Article 28 : Freedom of the Press. Article 29 : Right to Publish Periodicals and Non-periodicals.
Article 30 : Protection of Printing Facilities. Article Article 33 : Freedom of Association. Article 35 : Property Rights. Article 36 : Freedom to Claim Rights. Article 37 : Guarantee of Lawful Judgement. Article 38 : Principles Relating to Offences and Penalties. Article 39 : Right to Prove an Allegation. Article 40 : Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms. Article 41 : Protection of the Family. Article 42 : Right and Duty of Training and Education. Article 43 : Utilisation of the Coasts.
Article 44 : Land Ownership. Article 46 : Expropriation. Article 47 : Nationalization and Privatisation. Article 48 : Freedom to Work and Conclude Contracts. Article 49 : Right and Duty to Work. Article 51 : Right to Organize Labour Unions. Article 52 : Activities of Labour Unions. Article 53 : Right of Collective Bargaining. Article 54 : Right to Strike and Lockout. Article 55 : Guarantee of Fair Wage.
The state shall take the necessary measures to ensure that workers earn a fair wage commensurate with the work they perform and that they enjoy other social benefits. Article 56 : Health Services and Conservation of the Environment. Article 57 : Right to Housing. Article 58 : Protection of the Youth. Article 59 : Development of Sports. Article 60 : Right to Social Security. Article 62 : Turkish Nationals Working Abroad. Article 64 : Protection of Arts and Artists. Article 66 : Turkish Citizenship. Article 69 : Principles to be Observed by Political Parties.
Article 70 : Entry into Public Service. Article 71 : Declaration of Assets. Article 72 : National Service. Article 73 : Obligation to Pay Taxes. Article 74 : Right of Petition. Article 75 : Composition. Article 76 : Eligibility to be a Deputy. Article 79 : General Administration and Supervision of Elections. Article 80 : Representing the Nation. Article 81 : Oath-Taking. Article 82 : Activities Incompatible with Membership.
Article 83 : Parliamentary Immunity. Article 84 : Loss of Membership. Article 85 : Application for Annulment. Article 86 : Salaries and Allowances. Article 87 : General Provisions. Article 88 : Proposal and Debate of Laws. Article 89 : Promulgation of Laws by the President of the Republic. Article 93 : Convening and Adjournment. Article 94 : Bureau of the Assembly. The Bureau of the Assembly shall be so composed as to ensure proportionate representation to the number of members of each political party group in the Assembly.
Political party groups shall not nominate candidates for the Office of the Speaker. Article 96 : Quorums Required for Sessions and Decisions. Article 97 : Publicity and Publication of Debates. Article 98 : General Provisions. Article 99 : Motions of Censure. Article : Parliamentary Investigation. Article : Qualifications and Impartiality. Article : Election. Article : Taking the Oath. Article : Duties and Powers. Article : Presidential Accountability and Non-accountability. Article : Acting for the President of the Republic.
Article : General Secretariat of the President of the Republic. Article : State Supervisory Council. Article : Formation. Article : Taking Office and Vote of Confidence. Article : Vote of Confidence While in Office. Article : Functions and Political Responsibilities. Article : Ministers, and the Formation of Ministries. Article : Regulations. Article : National Security Council. Article : Rules Relating to the State of Emergency. Article : By-laws. Article : Recourse to Judicial Review. Article : Central Administration. Article : Local Administrations. Article : General Principles.
Disciplinary decisions shall be subject to judicial review, with the exception of warnings and reprimands. Actions for damages arising from faults committed by public servants and other public employees in the exercise of their duties shall be brought against the administration only in accordance with the procedure and conditions prescribed by law, and subject to recourse to them.
Article : Institutions of Higher Education. Institutions of higher education, under the supervision and control of the state, can be established by foundations in accordance with the procedures and principles set forth in the law provided that they do not pursue lucrative aims. The law shall provide for a balanced geographical distribution of universities throughout the country.
Universities, members of the teaching staff and their assistants may freely engage in all kinds of scientific research and publication. However, this shall not include the liberty to engage in activities directed against the existence and independence of the state, and against the integrity and indivisibility of the Nation and the Country.
Universities and units attached to them are under the control and supervision of the state and their security is ensured by the state. University rectors shall be appointed by the President of the Republic, and faculty deans by the Higher Education Council, in accordance with the procedures and provisions of the law. The administrative and supervisory organs of the universities and the teaching staff may not for any reason whatsoever be removed from their office by authorities other than those of the competent organs of the university or by the Higher Education Council.
The budgets drawn up by universities, after being examined and approved by the Higher Education Council shall be presented to the Ministry of National Education, and shall be put into effect and supervised in conformity with the principles applied to general and subsidiary budgets. Article : Superior Bodies of Higher Education. Article : Public Professional Organisations. Article : Department of Religious Affairs.
Article : Unlawful Orders. An order which in itself constitutes an offence shall under no circumstances be executed; the person who executes such an order shall not evade responsibility. Article : Independence of the Courts. Article : Judges and Public Prosecutors. Judges shall discharge their duties in accordance with the principles of the independence of the courts and the security of tenure of judges. The qualifications, appointment, rights and duties, salaries and allowances of judges and public prosecutors, their promotion, temporary or permanent change in their duties or posts, the initiation of disciplinary proceedings against them and the subsequent imposition of disciplinary penalties, the conduct of investigation concerning them and the subsequent decision to prosecute them on account of offences committed in connection with, or in the course of, their duties, the conviction for offences or instances of incompetence requiring their dismissal from the profession, their in-service training and other matters relating to their personnel status shall be regulated by law in accordance with the principles of the independence of the courts and the security of tenure of judges.
Judges and public prosecutors shall exercise their duties until they reach the age of sixty-five; promotion according to age and the retirement of military judges shall be prescribed by law. Judges and public prosecutors shall not assume official or public functions other than those prescribed by law. Judges and public prosecutors shall be attached to the Ministry of Justice where their administrative functions are concerned.
Article : Publicity of Hearings and Verdict Justification. Article : Organisation of Courts. Article : State Security Courts. State Security Courts shall consist of a president, two regular members and one substitute, one chief public prosecutor and a sufficient number of public prosecutors. The president, two regular and one substitute members and the chief public prosecutor from among the first category judges and public prosecutors, the public prosecutors from the other public prosecutors of the Republic shall be appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors in accordance with the procedures prescribed by special law for a four-year term; those whose term of office has expired may be reappointed.
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The High Court of Appeals is the competent authority to examine appeals against the judgements of the State Security Court. Article : Supervision of Judges and Public Prosecutors. Article : Military Justice. Military courts also have jurisdiction to try non-military persons for military offences specified in the special law; and for offences committed while performing their duties specified by law, or against military personnel on military places specified by law.
The offences and persons falling within the jurisdiction of military courts in time of war or under martial law, their organisation and the appointment, where necessary, of judges and public prosecutors from courts of justice to military courts shall be regulated by law.
Article : Organisation.
The President of the Republic shall appoint two regular and two substitute members from the High Court of Appeals, two regular and one substitute member from the Council of State, and one member each from the Military High Court of Appeals, the High Military Administrative Court and the Audit Court, three candidates being nominated for each vacant office by the Plenary Assemblies of each court from among their respective presidents and members, by an absolute majority of the total number of members; the President of the Republic shall also appoint one member from a list of three candidates nominated by the Higher Education Council from among members of the teaching staff of institutions of higher education who are not members of the Council, and three members and one substitute member from among senior administrative officers and lawyers.
To qualify for appointments as regular or substitute members of the Constitutional Court, members of the teaching staff of institutions of higher education, senior administrative officers and lawyers shall be required to be over the age of forty and to have completed their higher education, or to have served at least fifteen years as a member of the teaching staff of institutions of higher education or to have actually worked at least fifteen years in public service or to have practiced as a lawyer for at least fifteen years.
The Constitutional Court shall elect a president and Deputy president from among its regular members for a term of four years by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members. They may be re-elected at the end of their term of office. Article : Termination of Membership. Article : Functions and Powers. The verification of laws as to form shall be restricted to consideration of whether the requisite majority was obtained in the last ballot; the verification of constitutional amendments shall be restricted to consideration of whether the requisite majorities were obtained for the proposal and in the ballot, and whether the prohibition on debates under urgent procedure was complied with.
Verification as to form may be requested by the President of the Republic or by one-fifth of the members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Applications for annulment on the grounds of defect in form shall not be made more than ten days after the date on which the law was promulgated; nor shall objection be raised. Article : Functioning and Trial Procedure. The Constitutional Court shall convene with its president and ten members, and shall take decisions by absolute majority.
Decision of annulment of Constitutional amendments and closure in the cases of the political parties shall be taken by three-fifths majority. The Constitutional Court shall give priority to the consideration of, and to decisions on, applications for annulment on the grounds of defect in form. The organisation and trial procedures of the Constitutional Court shall be determined by law; its method of work and the division of labour among its members shall be regulated by the Rules of Procedure made by the Court.
Article : Annulment Action. Article : Time Limit for Annulment Action. If the court is not convinced of the seriousness of the claim of unconstitutionality, such a claim together with the main judgment shall be decided upon by the competent authority of appeal. The Constitutional Court shall decide on the matter and make public its judgment within five months of receiving the contention.
If no decision is reached within this period, the trial court shall conclude the case under existing legal provisions. However, if the decision on the merits of the case becomes final, the trial court is obliged to comply with it. Article : Decisions of the Constitutional Court. In the course of annulling the whole, or a provision, of laws or decrees having the force of law, the Constitutional Court shall not act as a law-maker and pass judgment leading to new implementation.
Laws, decrees having the force of law, or the Rules of Procedure of the Turkish Grand National Assembly or provisions thereof, shall cease to have effect from the date of publication in the Official Gazette of the annulment decision.
Where necessary, the Constitutional Court may also decide on the date on which the annulment decision shall come into effect. That date shall not be more than one year from the date of publication of the decision in the Official Gazette. In the event of the postponement of the date on which an annulment decision is to come into effect, the Turkish Grand National Assembly shall debate and decide with priority on the draft bill or law proposal, designed to fill the legal void arising from the annulment decision. Article : The High Court of Appeals. Members of the High Court of Appeals shall be appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors from among first category judges and public prosecutors of the Republic, of the courts of justice, or those considered to be members of this profession, by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members.
The first president, first deputy presidents and heads of division shall be elected by the Plenary Assembly of the High Court of Appeals from among its own members, for a term of four years, by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members; they may be re-elected at the end of their term of office. The Chief Public Prosecutor of the Republic and the Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor of the Republic of the High Court of Appeals shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a term of four years from among five candidates nominated for each office by the Plenary Assembly of the High Court of Appeals from among its own members by secret ballot.
Article : Council of State. The Council of State is the last instance for reviewing decisions and judgements given by administrative courts and which are not referred by law to other administrative courts. It shall also be the first and last instance for dealing with specific cases prescribed by law. The Council of State shall try administrative cases, give its opinion within two months of time on draft legislation, the conditions and the contracts under which concessions are granted concerning public services which are submitted by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, examine draft regulations, settle administrative disputes and discharge other duties as prescribed by law.
Three-fourths of the members of the Council of State shall be appointed by the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors from among the first category administrative judges and public prosecutors, or those considered to be of this profession; and the remaining quarter by the President of the Republic from among officials meeting the requirements designated by law.
The president, chief public prosecutor, deputy president, and heads of division of the Council of State shall be elected by the Plenary Assembly of the Council of State from among its own members for a term of four years by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members. Article : Military High Court of Appeals. Members of the Military High Court of Appeals shall be appointed by the President of the Republic from among three candidates nominated for each vacant office by the Plenary Assembly of the Military High Court of Appeals from among military judges of the first category, by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of members.
The president, chief public prosecutor, second presidents and heads of division of the Military High Court of Appeals shall be appointed according to rank and seniority from among the members of the Military High Court of Appeals. Members of the High Military Administrative Court of Appeals who are military judges shall be appointed by the President of the Republic from a list of three candidates nominated for each vacant office by the president and members of the Court, who are also military judges, by secret ballot and by an absolute majority of the total number of such members, from among military judges of the first category; members who are not military judges shall be appointed by the President of the Republic from a list of three candidates nominated for each vacant office by the Chief of the General Staff from among officers holding the rank and qualifications prescribed by law.
The president, chief public prosecutor and head of division of the Court shall be appointed from among military judges according to rank and seniority. Article : Court of Jurisdictional Disputes. The organisation of the Jurisdictional Court of Disputes the qualifications of its members and the procedure for their election, and its functioning shall be regulated by law. The office of president of this Court shall be held by a member delegated by the Constitutional Court from among its own members.
The President of the Council is the Minister of Justice. The Undersecretary to the Minister of Justice shall be an ex-officio member of the Council. Three regular and three substitute members of the Council shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for a term of four years from a list of three candidates nominated for each vacant office by the Plenary Assembly of the High Court of Appeals from among its own members and two regular and two substitute members shall be similarly appointed from a list of three candidates nominated for each vacant office by the Plenary Assembly of the Council of State.
The Council shall elect a deputy president from among its elected regular members. The Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors shall deal with the admission of judges and public prosecutors of courts of justice and of administrative courts into the profession, appointments, transfers to other posts, the delegation of temporary powers, promotion, and promotion to the first category, the allocation of posts, decisions concerning those whose continuation in the profession is found to be unsuitable, the imposition of disciplinary penalties and removal from office.
It shall take final decisions on proposals by the Ministry of Justice concerning the abolition of a court or an office of judge or public prosecutor, or changes in the jurisdiction of a court.
It shall also exercise the other functions given to it by the Constitution and laws. The functioning of the Council and methods of performing its duties, the procedure governing election and working methods, the principles relating to the examination of objections within the Council shall be regulated by law. The Minister of Justice is empowered to appoint judges and public prosecutors with their consent, to temporary or permanent functions in the central offices of the Ministry of Justice.
Article : Audit Court As amended on May 22, Article : Preparation and Implementation of the Budget. The beginning of the fiscal year and the preparation and implementation of the general and subsidiary budgets shall be defined by law. The law may prescribe special periods and procedures for investments relating to development plans, or for business and services expected to last more than one year.
Article : Debate on the Budget. The draft budgets and the reports shall be considered by the Budget Committee, which shall be composed of forty members. In the composition of this Committee, the proportional representation of the various political party groups and independent members in the Assembly, shall be taken into consideration subject to the allocation of at least twenty-five seats to members of the party or parties in power.
Draft budget, which shall be adopted by the Budget Committee within fifty-five days shall thereafter be considered by the Assembly and shall be decided on before the beginning of the fiscal year. Members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly shall express their opinions on ministerial, departmental and subsidiary budgets during the debates held in Plenary Session on each budget as a whole; the various headings and motions for amendments shall be read out and put to the vote without separate debate.
Article : Principles Governing Budgetary Amendments. Article : Final Account. The draft final accounts shall be placed on the agenda of the Budget Committee together with the Draft Budget Act for the new fiscal year. The Budget Committee shall submit the draft Budget Act to the Plenary Assembly in conjunction with the draft final accounts; the Plenary Assembly shall consider, and decide on the draft final accounts in conjunction with the draft Budget Act for the new fiscal year.
Article : Auditing of State Economic Enterprises. The planning of economic, social and cultural development, in particular the speedy, balanced and harmonious development of industry and agriculture throughout the country, and the efficient use of national resources on the basis of detailed analysis and assessment and the establishment of the necessary organisation for this purpose are the duties of the state.
Measures to increase national efficiency and production, to ensure stability in prices and balance in foreign trade transactions, to promote investment and employment, shall be included in the plan; investments, public benefit and requirements shall be taken into account; the efficient use of resources shall be aimed at. Development activities shall be realised according to this plan. The procedure and principles governing the preparation of development plans, their approval by the Turkish Grand National Assembly, their implementation and their revision, and the prevention of amendments liable to affect the unity of the plan shall be regulated by law.
Article : Exploration and Exploitation of Natural Resources. Article : Protection and Development of Forests. The ownership of state forests shall not be transferred to others. Ownership of these forests cannot be acquired through prescription, nor shall servitude other than that in the public interest be imposed in respect of such forests. Acts and actions which might damage forests shall not be permitted. No political propaganda which might lead to the destruction of forests shall be made; no amnesties or pardons specifically granted for offences against forests shall be legislated.
Offences committed with the intention of burning or destroying forests or reducing forest areas shall not be included within the scope of amnesties or pardons applicable on other occasions. Article : Protection of the Inhabitants of Forest Villages. The state shall take measures to facilitate the acquisition, by these inhabitants, of farming equipment and other inputs.
Article : Promotion of Cooperatives. The state shall take measures in keeping with national and economic interests, to promote the development of cooperatives, which shall be primarily designed to increase production and protect consumers. Article : Protection of Consumers. Article : Protection of Small Traders and Craftsmen. Article : Preservation of Reform Laws. Act No. The principle of civil marriage according to which the marriage act shall be concluded in the presence of the competent official, adopted with the Turkish Civil Code No.
On the proclamation, under lawful procedure, of the adoption by referendum of the Constitution as the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey, the Chairman of the Council of National Security and Head of State at the time of the referendum, shall assume the title of President of the Republic and shall exercise the Constitutional functions and powers of the President of the Republic for a period of seven years.
The oath taken as Head of State on 18 September , shall remain valid. At the end of the period of seven years the election for the Presidency of the Republic shall be held in accordance with the provisions set forth in the Constitution. If the Presidency of the Republic falls vacant for any reason before the Turkish Grand National Assembly convenes and assumes its functions at the end of the first general elections, the most senior member of the National Security Council shall act as President of the Republic and shall exercise all his constitutional functions and powers until the convening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and its election of a new President of the Republic in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
After the adoption of the Constitution, Article 3 of Act No. After the Turkish Grand National Assembly has convened and assumed its functions, the Council of National Security shall become the Presidential Council for a period of six years, and the members of the Council of National Security shall acquire the title of members of the Presidential Council. The oath they took on 18 September , as members of the Council of National Security shall remain valid. Members of the Presidential Council shall enjoy the rights and immunities conferred by the Constitution on members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
The legal existence of the Presidential Council shall terminate on the expiry of the period of six years. According to the request of the President of the Republic, to consider and investigate matters relating to internal or external security and such other matters as are deemed necessary, and to submit its findings to the President of the Republic. With the convening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the formation of the Bureau of the Assembly following the first general elections held in accordance with the Constitution:.
On the tenth day following proclamation by the Supreme Election Council of the results of the first general elections, the Turkish Grand National Assembly shall convene of its own accord at the premises of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara at The eldest deputy shall take the chair for this session. At this session the deputies shall take their oaths.
Until the Turkish Grand National Assembly, formed in accordance with the Constitution, adopts the Rules of Procedure which shall govern its sessions and proceedings, those provisions of the Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly which were in force before 12 September, , and which are not contrary to the Constitution shall apply. The next time, less so. And when you see it every week or so, it barely rates a mention. With the NBA falling over itself to apologise and Hollywood rescripting franchises, it seems the will of the Chinese government now reigns supreme in the US, writes Miranda Devine.
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